San Bernardino, . — Serious labor trouble is threatened in the beet fields
here over the situation created by the attempt to collect county poll tax from
the 450 Japanese living in Oxnard and employed in the beet fields. This
attempt after they had paid the city tax in this city, caused great
resentment. The Sheriff and deputy assessors in many instances seized horses
and goods owned by the Japanese and later forced them to pay under threats of
selling their property. Some of the Japanese have already left for other parts
of the State and the beet growers are in serious straits for laborers.
The gist of the dispute, I take it, is that as residents of the incorporated
city of Oxnard, the Japanese workers were supposed to be subject to its own
city tax but not to the county tax, which was only for people who lived in
However, the county tried to pull a fast one, and swooped in on the workers
while they were in the beet fields where they were temporarily working and
which were outside the city limits. They then declared the workers to be
thereby subject to the county poll tax as well.
Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania] Courier:
Refuses to Pay Tax — Tells Pres.
Cincinnati — Citing race bias in military
establishments and stating that a large part of income taxes goes for wars,
Wallace F. Nelson, a construction worker, went on record this week with
forty-one others throughout the country who have declared that they will not
pay income tax, according to a statement from the Peacemakers from New York.
Mr. Nelson wrote President Truman setting forth his reasons for refusing to
pay income taxes.
Pembrokeshire Herald and General Advertiser gives
an account of the trial of Rebeccaites accused in the Carmarthen workhouse
raid, held on at the
It gives some interesting background on how the demonstration was sparked.
The Rebecca Riot.
John Lewis, Isaac Charles, Job Evans, John Harries, David Williams, and David
Thomas, for unlawfully assembling at the Union Workhouse, at Carmarthen, on
, were first put upon their trial, and a special jury was sworn in.
Mr. John Evans,
Q.C., Mr. E.V.
Williams, and Mr. Chilton,
retained on the part of the prosecution, and Mr. Lloyd Hall for the defence.
Mr. Chilton opened the pleadings and stated, that John Harries, a miller,
residing at Talog, in the parish of Abernant, in this county, was charged with
being the ringleader in this unlawful assemblage. That the said John Harries,
had refused to pay Water-street gate, in this town, which caused him to be
fined, and his goods were distrained upon for the amount, and that the riot
took place in consequence of the distress made by the constables. That the
distress caused an ill-will and an angry feeling, and that threats were held
out that Water-street gate would be destroyed. That the defendant John Harris
had called upon Capt. Davies,
of Green Hall, stating that unless the fine would be returned, they would pay
him a visit, and handed him a letter to the same effect, signed by John Harris
and Thomas Thomas. The parish clerk of Abernant was compelled by Harris to
make a proclamation on ,
demanding the attendance of all the neighbouring farmers at Carmarthen on
, — farmers to come on
horseback, and their children and servants on foot. His summons was obeyed,
and they attended in thousands, carrying with them banners with Welsh
inscriptions, and a band of music playing before them. That after parading the
town, they arrived at the Union Workhouse, and demanded admission; the
governor refused for some time, but seeing the crowd so great, he admitted
them in, and the place was immediately filled, and were it not for the timely
arrival of a detachment of the 4th Light Dragoons,
the work of destruction which they had commenced would be carried on. Several
of the horses were left in the Workhouse yard, a number of the men were taken
at the time, and that some of them were the prisoners at the bar.
Capt. David Davies.— I am a
magistrate of this county. I know defendant Harries — he is a miller, living
at Talog mill. He called on me on and delivered this letter to
me. I read it in his presence. He said he had another for Mr. Morris for the
same purpose, and away he went.
The letter was as follows:– “Talog,
Sir— As we have been unlegally fined for refusing to pay Water-street gate, no
refuse being made, we give you this offer if you are intending to pay the
money to-day is the day. John Harries and Thomas Thomas.” He said unless paid
they were coming to demand it on
. I was in the town of Carmarthen on
. I was with the magistrates in
the Guildhall. I saw a number of persons
coming up towards the Hall from Lammas-street. There were 350 on horseback,
and a couple of thousands on foot. There was a band of music on foot. They
came up part of the Hall and went up street. They were a quarter of an hour
passing. The shops were shut. The crowd did not alarm me. Those on foot were
agricultural boys and girls, farm servants. I was not at all alarmed.
David Evans, road-surveyor.— On , I was sworn in as a special
constable. I live in this town. On , I was required to assist the
police to levy a distress on goods of Harries, the miller, for refusing to pay
tolls at Water-street gate. I went with other constables and police
constables. The attempt to distrain was resisted, and there was a great riot.
Towards the end of it they said they would pay Water-street gate a visit and
take it down, and also pay the workhouse a visit and take it down.
Cross-examined.— I did not see either Isaac Charles, or John Lewis. I do not
believe they were there. I believe they were not.
James Lewis.— I am the parish clerk of Abernant. I have been so 14 years. I
attended Divine service there on . It is the custom after
service is over to cry anything that is lost, or give any public notice. I
cried a mare that was lost, on that day. I was then desired by John Harries to
give notice to parishioners to come to Carmarthen
; whoever stayed at home would do
so at their peril. I did not refuse to cry it, but I told him I had rather
not. He said there was no harm in it. After I had made the proclamation, I
heard Capt. Evans advise the
people not to go. Late in the evening, I heard a conversation between
Capt. Evans and John Harries.
Cross-examined.— Isaac Charles and John Lewis were not at my church on that
Capt. Lewis Evans was called
Thomas Evans, fanner, of Placeparke, and Thomas Davies, of Bwlchnewydd,
Newchurch parish, farm servant, confirmed the preceding statements.
John Rae Evans, master of the Carmarthen Workhouse.— On the morning of
, my attention was attracted to a parcel of people idling and
sitting about the hedge outside. Perhaps 100 of them. I had heard rumours that
people from the country were to come to the workhouse that day. Most were
country people; about an equal number of women and men. The gates were closed.
I afterwards saw a large body of people coming up. We are on an elevation, and
had a view of them. Those in front were on foot, those behind on horseback.
There were hundreds on foot. I saw musical instruments with them. I did not
hear any music. They knocked and kicked at the door, and demanded admittance.
I was inside and can’t say who demanded admittance. Mr. Evans of Placeparke
begged me to admit him. He advised me to open the door, otherwise it would be
worse for me. I said if they were respectable men I would admit them, but not
such a rabble. There was a great noise outside, and the knocking continued. At
last I told the porter to open the gate. I was afraid, they were so numerous.
The mob rushed in. I retreated to the dining-hall, they followed me. The hall
was full; some jumped on the table, others thumped the table with sticks. I
attempted to reason with them. They said they wanted all the paupers out. They
said there was no further need of my services, nor the workhouse. They
demanded the keys of the men’s and women’s yard. I refused to give them up,
and they were wrenched out of my hand. They got into the two yards. I was
requested to go to the workhouse, some of the pauper children were crying. The
mob wanted them to go out, they were frightened, and did not like to go out. I
heard the cry “the soldiers are coming.” The room was soon emptied then. One
man struck me, it was Job Evans. It was in the school-room. I saw John Harries
in the front of the house. I did not see those in front of the house till they
had been captured. The back of the board-room was broken open. I knew Isaac
Charles perfectly well before this. He came into the hall with the rest. He
jumped about, waved his hand, and was active amongst them. He had no stick.
They cried “Hurrah!”
[Illegible]— I am a magistrate for this county. [I was at Abernant?] church on
heard a [illegible] the crier what it was about. He told me. [illegible] not
to go. I addressed them in Welsh. I [illegible] and Thomas had been fined. I
sent for them [and advised them to?] meet me at Cilwen that evening. They did
not come there. I went out and afterwards met them. I cannot be positive that
Harris came, but Thomas did. I went by the Plough and Harrow on my way to
Carmarthen. I saw Harris there; It was between 7 and 8. I desired Harris to
come to town and get some of the magistrates to come and dissuade the people
from coming. I also dissuaded him and asked him not to come, and use his
influence with them. Harris said that if I spoke to Mr. Webb, a magistrate
very much respected in town and country, and prevailed on him to come out, it
might have great effect in preventing them from coming. I met the band before
I entered the town, and I told them the people were not coming, so as to
persuade them not to come. They said they were paid for coming and they would
come. I then came on to town. I went out of town again and met them half a
mile from the Plough and Harrow. There was an immense crowd. I did not
distinguish Harris then. I endeavoured to dissuade them from coming to town.
Mr. J.Ll. Davies did so also. They said that their motive was to go to tell
the magistrates their grievances and not to do any harm. A great many did stop
with us, but the great body went on. We said idle fellows in town would get
them into mischief.
James Morse, Stamp Distributor.— On , I overtook a cavalcade of
horsemen and footmen moving down King-street. They came through
Guildhall-square, and went towards the workhouse. The foot had entered the
workhouse before I got up. I had got ahead of the horsemen. There were from
300 to 500 horsemen, and from 1,500 to 1,800 on foot. I got into the workhouse
between two horsemen. I saw the master, he appeared frightened. I spoke to the
mob and exhorted them to go home and petition parliament. My address gave them
satisfaction, as I touched upon the Educational bill — being dissenters they
listened to me, and gave me three cheers. I was interrupted by a man upsetting
the iron bedsteads. I spoke to him and he doubled his fists and said “come
on.” He did not strike me. He desisted from upsetting the beds. I afterwards
gave him into custody. I do not know his name. I did not see either Charles or
Eliza Evans— I am the matron of the union workhouse[.] I was at the kitchen
door when they came in. A man said he would injure me if I would not give the
key of the pantry. He said he would kill me. I refused the keys. Another man
held his fist in my face. He said I had locked the children in the pantry.
There was a great deal of noise. The house seemed coming down. The bed-clothes
were thrown out through the windows. The children were about me crying, and
praying the mob not to kill their mistress. They said they would provide a
place for them. All of a sudden they all disappeared. I then saw the military.
One board up stairs was forced up; it was sound before.
Daniel Levy, John Pugh, Thomas Hughes and others were examined.
The jury, after retiring for a short time, found the whole of the prisoners
guilty, and sentence was deferred.
The Talog Rioters.
John Jones, Jonathan Jones, Howell Lewis[,] Jonathan Lewis, David Davies, and
David Lewis, were charged with having committed a riot and assault at Tallog,
in the parish of Abernant, on .
Mr. Chilton opened the pleadings, and stated that the prisoners were charged
with having tumultuously assembled at the village of Tallog, and obstructed
the levying of a distress upon the goods of John Harris, for non-payment of
toll at Water-street gate. That the goods distrained upon were rescued by the
prisoners, and the constables assaulted by the mob. That Jonathan Jones had a
hatchet with him, Jonathan Lewis carried a gun, and David Davies was loud in
His lordship having summed up the evidence, the jury acquitted the prisoner
John Jones, but Jonathan Jones, Howell Lewis, Jonathan Lewis, David Davies,
and David Lewis, were found guilty, and ordered to be in attendance to receive
judgment when called for.
The court then commenced the following case:—
Thomas Lewis and Thomas Morgan were then indicted on the charge of having
destroyed the turnpike gate and toll-house at Dolauhirion, near the town of
The court adjourned.
His lordship entered the court at , and the trial of the previous evening was proceeded with.
After the examination of several witnesses, the jury acquitted the prisoners.
John Jones, Thomas Hughes, and Benjamin Jones, were then indicted on the
charge of having destroyed Pontarllechau gate and toll-house, near Llangadock,
His lordship, after the examination of several witnesses, summed up; after
which the jury retired to consider their verdict. In a short time they
returned, and delivered a verdict of “Guilty” against the three defendants.
They were ordered to be detained in custody.